Towards a Legal Definition of the Artist-Researcher Status: The Italian Case and The French Case
To Cite this Article
Polvani, S. (2014). Towards a Legal Definition of the Artist-Researcher Status: The Italian Case and The French Case. p-e-r-f-o-r-m-a-n-c-e.org, 1.
Starting from a semantic analysis of the term “researcher”, I questioned the possible combinations with the term “artist” to reach a definition of the identity of the artist-researcher. On the one hand we are facing a tautological sense, as research is intrinsic to each artist. On the other hand I have individuated two cases where the union of these terms differently qualifies the artist. First I have listed the emergence of the figure of the artist-researcher in the sixties, as a creator of a new art form based in particular on machines and electronic technology. Second, I tried to reconstruct the status of the artist-researcher by confronting it with constraints and legal definitions set forth by the reforms of Higher Education and Research in Europe that were implemented after the Bologna Statement. I particularly focused on the status of the artist-researcher within universities, art schools and conservatories in France and Italy.
Artist, researcher, artist-researcher, art, theater, Leonardo da Vinci, Hyppolite Taine, Étienne Souriau, Gao Xingjian, Gerardo Guccini, Claudio Longhi, Joseph Danan, Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur, Espace Européen de la Recherche, Bologna statement, University of Bologna, France, Italy.
The possibility of discussing a subject has a prerequisite: a specific semantic field to which said subject refers, and which is both the conceptual perimeter of discussion and the limit to be exceeded. What then is our semantic horizon when we broach the subject of the artist-researcher, with a hyphen bringing the two nouns together, artist and researcher, as if to form a single body and an original word? We feel as if we are facing a reality that is both normal and at the same time completely new. Regarding the concept of artist, which is not necessary to define, I would nevertheless like to clarify that I am referring to a notion of art that includes the visual and performing arts (theater, dance, opera, circus, etc.), music and film.
Using the word “researcher” as our access key for this study, we find that according to the article from Trésor de la Langue Française, this term has at least three meanings associated with the action of a person who searches and researches. In the first meaning, this noun refers to the subject engaging in research activity that covers something general. It is in that semantic horizon that we find the mythical gold miners, those on a quest for adventure or firedamp.[i] A second meaning in which the word is used without the object of the research being specified defines it as “an inquisitive, inventive mind, devoted to specialized research.”[ii] When Hyppolite Taine, in his book Philosophie de l’art en Italie. Voyage en Italie (1866), brings up Leonardo de Vinci, he describes him as a “scholar, an experimenter, a researcher.”[iii] A third meaning has emerged more recently, in everyday usage: the word “researcher”—again, according to Trésor de la langue Française—is used as a “title given to an expert, usually associated with an Institute, a research organization,” such as “researchers with the CNRS (National Center for Scientific Research in France).”[iv]
Thus, between the second meaning and the meaning that the word “researcher” has now taken on in common usage, the question arises as to how to better define the identity of the artist influencing the identity of the artist-researcher.
At different time periods in the history of art, there have been artists who, as creators, were researchers, at least in terms of the word’s second meaning, because they were spirits on a relentless quest, innovators and precursors. The art of creation cannot be carried out without a process of researching concepts, shapes, materials, styles and methods. In his essay Esthétique de l’artiste, Gao Xingjian, who addresses several fields of artistic creation, from painting to theater, from literature to film, describes this requirement as follows:
The quest on which the artist embarks throughout his life is the quest to find a viable method with which to achieve the art he envisions in his mind. The ability for an artist to find his own method of artistic creation is crucial to success in art. The methods used by predecessors or other artists are only lessons that were learned, a reference system. To search for and research, within the limits of an art, unlimited possibilities for artistic expression, that is the work of the artist.[v]
Extrait du Codex Atlanticus f.858r par Léonard de Vinci, Gallerie dell’Accademia de Venise, Venise (Italie).
Photo: Luc Viatour – www.Lucnix.be.
If research is a personal attitude of the artist—and the work and writings of artists, from Diderot to Stanislavsky to Artaud, to speak only of the field of theater, confirm that—then the definition of artist-researcher would be pleonastic, both sides of the component being only a tautology.
The Artist As Researcher According to Étienne Souriau
Étienne Souriau, when he outlined the features of the artist over the centuries, spoke of the artist of the 1960s as a “researcher,” based on his attitude towards creation that made him similar to a man of science:
They research…that word is a must. These present-day artists are primarily researchers. When they talk about their art, whether orally or in writing, it is rare for the words “study” and “research” to not be a part of the vocabulary they use to talk about their activity or their works. Hence the fact that their studios are closer in spirit to a laboratory than to the artist studios of yesteryear. This enthusiasm, which was supposed to free their unconscious and infuse the work with spontaneity, how foreign it is to them! Certainly they invest as much intensity and passion in their work as the artists of former eras. But their passion as researchers is akin to the passion of the scientist, a passion that generates […] And besides, it doesn’t prevent the controls of intelligence or the lucid inspirations of ingenuity. The word ingenuity is indeed the one that comes most readily to mind with respect to the most original achievements of these combinations of forms, and ingenious is not far from striving. Far from viewing their creative work as a kind of ebullition that causes their overfull soul to overflow, more often than not they view it coldly and somewhat aggressively consider it as “the making of an object.”[vi]
Souriau singled out the artistic experiences of Alexander Calder, Victor Vasarely, Nicolas Schöffer (the artist-engineer, with his works of kinetic, cybernetics, interactive art), Joel Stein, and François Morellet.
It is difficult to imagine Leonardo da Vinci’s workshop being different than the workshops of the scientists of his time. Certainly, Leonardo was both an artist and a scientist, an architect and an engineer; he worked on painting, war machines, and flying machines all at the same time.
L’hallucination (1983), de Gao Xingjian. Peinture à encre de Chine.
The definition of the artist as researcher put forward by E. Souriau captured a new aesthetic approach to art, which had become interdisciplinary, combining visual and sound arts, video, art closely related to machines, art using the technology of the time, namely electronic technologies. E. Souriau, on the one hand, highlighted the relationship that art has with technology and science, through the similarity between the work of the artist, in the creative process, and the work of the scientist; he was trying to define, on the other hand, how the artist positions himself in relation to his work.
CYSP 1 (1956), de Nicolas Schöffer, sculpture robotisée autonome.
Présentée en mai 1956, CYSP 1 a été intégrée par Maurice Béjart en tant que robot-danseur
dans son spectacle CYSP 1, pas de deux, sur une musique de Pierre Henry,
créé au Festival d’art d’avant-garde, toit de la Cité radieuse, Marseille, 1956. http://www.olats.org/schoffer/archives/chindex.html
Souriau’s observations are still relevant when it comes to photographing the relationship the contemporary artist has with new technologies. However, his definition of the researcher as a man of science remains within the description of the artist in his attitude towards research, in his modus operandi and in the thoughts and reflects that went into his creative process and which are finalized with the creation of a work of art.
Although on some level it expands the scope of the word “researcher” with respect to the notion of artist, such a definition would only apply to an artist typology, and it is only in this way that it would avoid tautology.
The Artist-Scientist Beyond Tautology
In order for the term “artist-researcher” not to be perceived as a tautology and in order for it to take on a new meaning and a new extension, we must question the ordinary meaning of the word, i.e. the one whereby the researcher is an expert carrying out scientific research and who is associated with an institution devoted to research.
But this very broad definition does not explain what a researcher is. On the CNRS website, there is a fairly specific definition of what a researcher is, based on his missions and objectives:
In his work, the researcher contributes to the development of knowledge, to its communication and application, in businesses and in all areas contributing to the progress of society. One of his missions is the dissemination of information and of scientific and technical culture. In his laboratory, and in his fields of expertise, the researcher is involved in training PhD students, post-doctoral researchers and young researchers. The researcher can also manage teams, oversee scientific projects, provide education and build on the results of his research.[vii]
A similar definition is given for researchers in universities and other institutions of higher learning, the “teacher-researchers,” meant to advance research in their field and transfer their knowledge to the students.[viii] This last responsibility is what differentiates teacher-researchers from CNRS researchers, for whom teaching is not the primary responsibility.
Once we determine what “researcher” means in the ordinary meaning of the term, we will be able to better grasp the meaning of the binomial “artist-researcher” by trying to identify the conditions that allow for his existence as well as his challenges in terms of identity.
According to the common meaning of the term, being a researcher is a profession and a function in its own right. One can be a researcher without having any other professional status; being a researcher is already a profession. It follows that being a researcher is not an intrinsic quality of the artist, whereas research is implicit in any artistic creation. Being a researcher would be a function that could, if necessary, add to the tasks of the artist, but that should give rise to different activities of artistic production. In other words, one can be an artist without being a researcher, or a researcher without being an artist; one can therefore be both an artist and a scientist, or, to use the formula that is the subject of this analysis, an artist-researcher.
For the artist to also be a researcher, a few preconditions need to be met. The artist’s status as researcher would be recognized, thus he would be both an artist and a researcher, if a member of a team working at an organization institutionally devoted to research, and more particularly to research in the arts: universities and national research centers in individual countries, such as the CNRS in France.
The recognition of this dual status would then be conditioned on the artist’s integration in a research institution or university. But this essential condition is not sufficient, on the one hand; on the other hand, it is limited to a rather critical list of achievements that differs between countries and cultures. For when it comes to the integration of the artist, recognized as a researcher, in academic or research institutions, there is a fairly clear distinction between the Anglo-Saxon world and the European continent. I won’t indulge in a comprehensive comparison between the different practices and regulations; instead, I will limit myself to examples of the situations in France and Italy. In Anglo-Saxon universities, artists are normally part of the personnel chart as teachers and researchers, while the situation is much more opaque in France, and even more so in Italy.
It is necessary to further clarify the challenges of the issue. Belonging to an institution devoted to research is an essential requirement, but it is still not enough to ensure that the artist is actually considered a researcher, because it is especially important for the artist to devote himself to the scientific and academic production.
The University of Bologna’s DAMS: the Artist-Teacher
If we consider one of the pioneer departments in Italy in the field of basic research in the arts and performing arts, the University of Bologna’s DAMS (Discipline delle Arti, della Musica e dello Spettacolo), we can grasp the duality of this problem. Founded in 1970, the DAMS had caught the attention of the academic world because of its experimental approach—on the walls one could read “dadams,” a cross between DAMS and dada.[ix] The school was innovative in the subjects it offered—it was the first university in the world where, all the way back in 1975, a chair in semiotics was created at the instigation of young professor Umberto Eco—and also innovative in its rules of procedure, which were modeled on those of Bauhaus and its faculty. Theorists and critics of Marx and McLuhan, Husserl and Barthes[x] mingled with the poets and writers of Group 63[xi] as well as performing artists.
Il Gruppo ’63, dans une image d’une rencontre à Reggio Emilia en 1964,
publiée dans la revue Il Venerdì di Repubblica, n. 1299, 8.2.2013. http://archiviomauriziospatola.files.wordpress.com/2013/11/gruppo-63-da-venerdc3ac-di-repubblica.jpg
As stressed by Gerardo Guccini, a dramaturgy professor in that department as well as a critic and author, “the DAMS was born as an innovative degree program, where artists taught alongside researchers. That was the great intuition of Benedetto Marzullo, who invited a set designer, Gianni Polidori, to teach set design, a filmmaker, Luigi Squarzina to teach directing, a poet-playwright, Giuliano Scabia to teach playwriting etc. This anomaly, however, then gradually conformed to academic standards.”[xii]
For two decades, artists were hired to impart to students their artistic practice and expertise, as teachers working at the university, which does not mean they were integrated as researchers, even though it seems obvious to a certain extent that their contribution was critical in helping to advance research. Over the years, the DAMS experiment was absorbed and standardized following the usual models of the Italian university system, even falling short on the issue compared to the policy that had been practiced since its inception. As for the reasons behind this shift in direction, G. Guccini explains that “the DAMS solution complied with the university system because it has always been an internal component of that system, and it adjusted to its standards in order to replace its faculty following retirements and deaths.”[xiii] The DAMS, which had attracted students aspiring to become artists more than they did experts in artistic fields destined to work in cultural institutions, then gave up its original calling and invited and integrated fewer and fewer artists into the faculty. This choice was also influenced by the state of practical training in the arts.
The Italian system, and not just the Italian one, as this is also the case in France, features artistic training institutes that are separate from universities, such as music conservatories, drama academies, dance and fine arts institutes, and film schools. It was out of respect for the mission of these schools and the need to not duplicate their functions that the DAMS revised its prerogatives and, on some level, abandoned its original formula, which advocated a mix of actual researchers and artists.
Thus, if we consider the current faculty at the DAMS of Bologna, in the field of theater,[xiv] Claudio Longhi is a director (he was awarded the special UBU prize in 2013 for his show Il ratto Europa) and researcher, but his position at the school is not defined by his artistic work. As G. Guccini so succinctly explains:
“Unlike the Anglo-Saxon universities, Italian universities do not have teaching positions for artists. Faculty members with skills in both areas are exceptions in the Italian university landscape. In fact, if they have an academic role it is because of their studies, not their artistic activities. The artist-researcher is a foreign element in the Italian academic world, whereas he is absolutely endogenous in the Anglo-Saxon system.”[xv]
In France, the situation is not very different from the Italian one. Although in some university institutes or at the CNRS—here I am thinking in particular of the Institute of Theatre Studies at Paris 3 Sorbonne Nouvelle, or the UFR 04-Visual Arts and Sciences of Art at Paris 1 Panthéon-Sorbonne— several artists are present (playwrights, translators, theater directors, filmmakers, actors, performers, poets, musicians, visual artists, photographers, etc.) who are also researchers, their number is still relatively small compared to the number of out-and-out theorists. Moreover, they themselves have a university curriculum in addition to their artistic activity.
The European Higher Education Area and the European Research Area
Despite what we have just seen, if we change our perspective, if we leave the universities and research centers and position ourselves on the side of the conservatories and art schools and take into consideration the changes that were implemented in the higher education and research system at the European level in the last 15 years, since the Bologna Declaration in 1999, what we realize is that the notion of the artist-researcher, still using the third meaning of the term, continues to raise various questions, which concern legislative procedures and trigger problems of identity. The artist-researcher in this context is more a cultural product manufactured by laws and forced on the artists themselves, who perceive it generally at the expense of their creativity and artistic freedom, than someone with an impulse towards the duplicity of art that meets the knowledge of scientific research.
In 1999 the education ministers of twenty-nine European countries signed an international agreement in Bologna, the Declaration, triggering a major reform, intended to take place in several stages over several years, on the standardization of higher education in the European Union. The goal was to create, by 2010, the European Higher Education Area (EHEA), “as a key way to promote citizen mobility, facilitate their integration into the European labor market and promote the overall development of our continent [Europe].”[xvi] The goal was reached on time: the European Higher Education Area was launched at the Budapest-Vienna meetings of June 11 and 12, 2010.[xvii] The main objective of the reform was “the achievement of greater compatibility and comparability between the systems of higher education”[xviii] in European countries, aiming for a better assessment of the quality of education and in order to promote “the competitiveness of European education system,”[xix] so that it might have “as much appeal throughout the world as our extraordinary cultural and scientific traditions.”[xx]
In 2000, the European Commission launched the European Research Area, with the purpose of promoting “an internal European market for research, a real coordination of activities, programs and national and regional policies at the European level, and initiatives designed and funded by the EU, “thus laying the foundation for a real society of European knowledge.”[xxi]
I also mention this reform because the European Research Area (ERA) and the EHEA are not strangers to each other, with research relying on the Education Area and the latter feeding on research, both of them acting like communicating vessels. After the Bergen Conference in 2005, one of the steps towards the creation of the EHEA, they started to bring up in a more programmatic way the need to pursue the goal of establishing a closer relationship between the EHEA and the ERA, emphasizing the importance of supporting and enhancing research and research training with the aim of improving the quality of the EHEA and to reinforce its competitiveness and attractiveness.[xxii] Following the international financial and economic crisis of 2008, the 2009 Conference of Leuven and Louvain-la-Neuve confirmed the centrality of the integration of higher education and research in order to foster recovery and sustainable economic development,[xxiii] by stipulating on the one hand that at all levels, higher education should be based on research and on the development of cutting edge technology, that it should stimulate innovation and creativity within society; and by recalling on the other hand the need to increase the number of people with research skills.[xxiv]
Artists Meant To Be Researchers: the Impact of the Bologna Reform on Conservatories and Art Schools
It is well known that the core of the higher education reform was the adoption of a system based on two main study cycles: the first is a three-year program leading to the License degree (B.A.), and the second a two-year program leading to the Master (M.A.). Another three-year program after that leads to the PhD. This reform, which was of particular interest to the universities and Grandes Écoles (prestigious institutions of higher learning)—in some countries, these types of establishments already had study cycles structured on that model before the Bologna Declaration—also involved institutions of higher education in the arts, such as art, architecture and film schools, and music, dance, and theater conservatories.[xxv] The latter, in order for its diplomas to be recognized as university degrees (B.A. / M.A. / PhD) or recognized diplomas, were forced to integrate research in their study courses, and, as with the other institutions, they were subjected to evaluations of the quality of their services and of training conducted by quality assurance agencies in Europe (for France, the AERES and the CTI)[xxvi] made up mainly of academics.[xxvii]
Consequently, on the one hand, the faculty made up of artists, which most teachers in art institutes are, recruited for their teaching skills and for their artistic background,[xxviii] have been forced to do research, following the methodology of academic researchers, which in most cases is far removed from the methodology used in artistic production and practice. Artistic creation cannot be considered research and artists are expected, in addition to the practice of their specialty, to produce scientific and analytical work on the research process, from the researchers’ critical point of view.[xxix] Moreover, the integration of a large number of PhDs, with a status and a mission similar to that of faculty members, has been strongly recommended.[xxx]
Through imposed reform and regulations, which in most cases were not well received initially (specifically in France and in certain Länder in Germany, for in Britain and in the Scandinavian countries, art schools already had university status before the Bologna reforms) and not always fully implemented—the Accademia d’Arte Drammatica Silvio d’Amico in Italy comes to mind, where to date, only the B.A. and the first level M.A. are offered—artists have seen their status, even their identity, change.
While for artists integrated in universities or research centers there can be a problem of hosting capabilities—there are as many artist-researchers as there are candidates wishing to be associated with such and such establishment—and, as we saw, often their membership to these institutions is related more to their status as a researcher than their identity as an artist, for artists in art schools the question that arose had to do with their maintenance. Because, to be able to stay in their schools, artists were forced to get involved in research, to go from being artists to being artist-researchers. They found themselves facing a form of regulatory co-optation of research, which could result in a hetero-induced mutation of their identity, which on some level threatens to move, relegate to the background, or marginalize their artistic activity, even economically.[xxxi]
The existence, role and the growing number of artist-researchers is linked to historical circumstances and political, cultural, and economic demands, and it seems clear that at the institutional level, in this hyphenated identity, it is the researcher that takes precedence over the artist.
If the artist-researcher, in the usual meaning of the term “researcher,” as a historical product bears the marks of his historicity, with its contradictions and tensions, the artist-researcher in his radical and tautological meaning expresses the immanence of his inclination, of his requirement, as a number of his artistic creation, of being an artist.
Joseph Danan, the playwright and researcher in theater studies, at the beginning of his essay Entre théâtre et performance: la question du texte (Between theater and performance: the question of the text), writes: “The book you just opened (the book I began writing this July 16, 2012) conforms to a dual need. That of a researcher wanting to better understand the profound changes in the contemporary theater scene. That of a playwright on the edge of the impossibility of writing in the face of these changes and who is wondering how to continue.”[xxxii]
Being an artist and being a researcher, being an artist-researcher, carries with it a double gaze, a double impulse and desire, where research becomes a tool for understanding one’s own creations and the state of art, whereas artistic creation is impulse, fuel and seed for research, the place to experiment modalities unique to art.
You come, you come
/A line of translucent light
And you touch me,
a hand, shoulder blade exposed
You come and you dissolve the wax
with the blind ear.
Impenetrable, I wandered, closed off
/ All in silk trickle
/ Against, I say, against
Powerlessness, resistant the language
with the refrain that emaciates
You come and you unfurl
/ Uncertain crackling of fissures
Ulna against malleolus
lashes and flagella to explore
pallor, to flush
/ You enchant me
Again, I am
on stone here
emerging on the surface
of the stretched horizon
To appear, disappear
petals and leaves of wings to spread
[i] Trésor de la Langue française, entrée “chercheur”. Consulté le 13 janvier 2014. http://atilf.atilf.fr/dendien/scripts/tlfiv5/advanced.exe?8;s=2256111225.
[iii] Ibidem. «Il [Léonard de Vinci] était déjà savant, expérimentateur, chercheur et sceptique, avec une grâce de femme et des dégoûts d’homme de génie. TAINE, Voyage en Italie».
[v] Gao, Xingjian, 2013. «Esthétique de l’art», in De la création, traduit du chinois par Sebastian Veg, Paris: Seuil : 155.
[vi] Souriau, Etienne, 1968. «L’Esthétique et l’artiste contemporain», in Leonardo, Vol 1, No 1 (Jan), Pergamon Press, Published by The MIT Press, Stable : 66. Consulté le 30 janvier 2014. http://www.jstor.org/stable/1571906.
[vii] Cf. «Etre chercheurs au CNRS», Centre national de la recherche scientifique. Consulté le 1 mai 2014. http://www.dgdr.cnrs.fr/drhchercheurs/concoursch/chercheur/default-fr.htm.
[viii] Cf. «Enseignant(e)-chercheur(se)», L’info nationale et régionale sur les métiers et les formations. Consulté le 1 mai 2014. http://www.onisep.fr/Ressources/Univers-Metier/Metiers/enseignant-e-chercheur-euse.
[ix] Cf. «Cosa resta del DAMS» par Roberto Di Caro, L’Espresso, 02.12.1999.
[xi] Cf. «Le voci sperimentali del Gruppo 63» (par Silverio Novelli), Treccani enciclopedia italiana. Consulté le 8 mai 2014. http://www.treccani.it/magazine/lingua_italiana/percorsi/percorsi_94.html.
[xii]Extrait de l’entretien avec Gerardo Guccini réalisé par Simona Polvani par mail le 4 et le 18 mars 2014. Notre traduction.
[xiv] Cf. Longhi, Claudio: biographie sur le site internet de Alma Mater Studiorum Université de Bologne. Consulté le 8 mai 2014. http://www.unibo.it/SitoWebDocente/default.htm?upn=claudio.longhi2%40unibo.it&TabControl1=TabCV.
[xv]Extrait de l’entretien avec Gerardo Guccini réalisé par Simona Polvani cité.
[xvi] Cf. Déclaration de Bologne, 19 juin 1999. L’espace européen de l’enseignement supérieur, Van het Vlaams Ministerie Van Onderwijs en Vorming. Consulté le 15 mars 2014. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/language/1999_Bologna_Declaration_French.pdf.
[xvii] Cf. Déclaration de Budapest-Vienne sur l’espace européen de l’enseignement supérieur, 12 mars 2010, Van het Vlaams Ministerie Van Onderwijs en Vorming. Consulté le 12 avril 2014. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/language/2010_Budapest-Vienna_Declaration_FR.pdf.
[xviii] Déclaration de Bologne.
[xxi] Cf. Espace européen de la recherche (EER): nouvelles perspectives, Europa. Consulté le 5 mai 2014. http://europa.eu/legislation_summaries/employment_and_social_policy/eu2020/growth_and_jobs/i23037_fr.htm.
[xxii] Cf. Conférence de Bergen, Communiqué de Bergen, 20 mai 2005, L’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur- Réaliser les objectifs – Communiqué de la Conférence des Ministres européens chargés de l’Enseignement Supérieur, Bergen, 19-20 Mai 2005. Van het Vlaams Ministerie Van Onderwijs en Vorming. Consulté le 11 mai 2014. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/language/2005_Bergen_Communique_French.pdf.
[xxiii] Cf. Processus de Bologne 2020 –L’espace européen de l’enseignement supérieur au cours de la prochaine décennie, Communiqué de la Conférence des ministres européens chargés de l’Enseignement supérieur, Louvain et Louvain-la-Neuve, 28 et 29 avril 2009. Van het Vlaams Ministerie Van Onderwijs en Vorming. Consulté le 11 mai 2014. http://www.ond.vlaanderen.be/hogeronderwijs/bologna/links/language/2009_Louvain_Louvain-la_Neuve_Communiqué_FR.pdf.
[xxv] Cf. Trémeau, Tristan, 2009. «Les Écoles Supérieures d’art en recherche d’identité», in AM-Art même, n° 45, 4° trimestre : 5.
[xxvi] Cf. «L’Espace Européen de l’Enseignement Supérieur (E.E.E.S.).» Consulté le 8 mai 2014. Ministère de l’Education nationale, de l’enseignement Supérieur et de la Recherche. http://www.enseignementsup-recherche.gouv.fr/cid56043/presentation-de-l-e.e.e.s.html.
[xxvii] Cf. Trémeau, 2009, cit. 5.
[xxix] Ibidem, 6.
[xxx] Ibidem, 5.
[xxxi] Ibidem, 6.
[xxxii] Danan, Joseph, 2013. Entre théâtre et performance: la question du texte, Arles: Actes Sud: 5.
[xxxiii] Polvani, Simona, En-Apparence (In-Apparenza), 2012, traduction de l’italien par l’auteur lui-même en collaboration avec Camilla Maria Cederna et Ludovico Greco; poème pour l’installation vidéo homonyme, conception et texte de Simona Polvani, réalisation vidéo de Federico Fiori et Francesca Lenzi (Influx), création le 30 juin 2012 au Festival Nottilucente, Piazza delle Erbe, San Gimignano, Italie.
Accademia Nazionale Silvio D’Amico. Chi siamo. Consulté le 21 avril 2014. http://www.accademiasilviodamico.it/public/documenti/chi%20siamo_ita50250320141455181.pdf
Accademia Nazionale d’Arte Drammatica “Silvio D’Amico”. Master in critica giornalistica. Consulté le 10 mai 2014. http://www.accademiasilviodamico.it/interno.asp?id=80&id_dettaglio=715.
Alma Mater Studiorum Université de Bologne. Longhi, Claudio (biographie). Consulté le 9 mai 2014. http://www.unibo.it/SitoWebDocente/default.htm?upn=claudio.longhi2%40unibo.it&TabControl1=TabCV.
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